Some Ancillary Technical Information and Reference

T. E. Bearden, LTC, U.S. Army (Retired)
Director, Association of Distinguished American Scientists (ADAS)
Fellow Emeritus, Alpha Foundation’s Institute for Advanced Study (AIAS)

Web Site:


The real problem is the present sadly flawed old electrical engineering model, put together by Heaviside and others in the 1880s after Maxwell was already dead (he died in 1879). The present CEM/EE model is only a pale shadow and a tremendous truncation of Maxwell’s actual theory of 1865 – which contained twenty equations in twenty unknowns. Maxwell’s theory is not and has not been taught in our universities. The already-highly curtailed four vector Heaviside equations of the 1880s were then symmetrized in 1892 by Lorentz. This arbitrarily discarded all asymmetrical Maxwellian systems. Our EE departments, professors, and textbooks still teach that horribly mangled CEM/EE model, and only symmetrical EM systems.

For the original theory, see James Clerk Maxwell, “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field,” Royal Society Transactions, Vol. CLV, 1865, p 459. Read Dec. 8, 1864. Also in The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, 2 vols. bound as one, edited by W. D. Niven, Dover, New York, 1952, Vol. 1, p. 526-597. Two errata are given on the unnumbered page prior to page 1 of Vol. 1. In this paper Maxwell presents his seminal theory of electromagnetism, containing 20 equations in 20 unknowns. His general equations of the electromagnetic field are given in “Part III, General Equations of the Electromagnetic Field,” p. 554-564. On p. 561, he lists his 20 variables. On p. 562, he summarizes the different subjects of the 20 equations, being three equations each for magnetic force, electric currents, electromotive force, electric elasticity, electric resistance, total currents; and one equation each for free electricity and continuity.

Vlad of ZPE has put that original Maxwell paper on pdf files and has it on his website, available for anyone to download. The site links are:

Wikipedia now has a little article on the original Maxwell 1865 theory (20 equations in 20 unknowns). The link is:

Also, see James Clerk Maxwell: The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, edited by Thomas F. Torrance, Wipf and Stock Publishers, Eugene, Oregon, 1996. Contains Maxwell’s original 1865 dynamical theory paper and commentaries. One can usually buy this little volume from Amazon etc. for about $15.

Eminent scientists (such as Nobelist Feynman, the great John Wheeler, Margenau, Bunge and many others have long pointed out the terrible falsities taught in our present CEM/EE model, to no avail. Our scientific community refuses to change that terrible model, and just continues to deliberately teach its known falsities. Since Lee and Yang’s award of the Nobel Prize in 1957 because of their startling prediction of broken symmetry in physics, we have known that the broken symmetry of a charge (together with its polarized vacuum) or any other dipolarity, directly absorbs virtual energy from the seething virtual state vacuum and freely outputs it as real, observable, usable EM energy.

A listing and discussion of those falsities in CEM/EE is in my paper “Errors and Omissions in the CEM/EE Model,” on my website. So far as I’m aware, this is the only paper that gathers these blatant falsities together and discusses them.

Also, this “Errors …” paper was formally reviewed by the National Science Foundation and passed their review. For the NSF letter, click here.

Here are some rigorous technical references on the MEG or related to it:

M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., “Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator with O(3) Electrodynamics,” Foundations of Physics Letters, 14(1), Feb. 2001, p. 87-94.

Quoting: “…the fundamental operational principle of the MEG is explained using a version of higher symmetry electrodynamics known as O(3) electrodynamics, which … has been developed extensively in the literature. The theoretical explanation of the MEG with O(3) electrodynamics is straightforward: Magnetic energy is taken directly ex vacua and used to replenish the permanent magnets of the MEG device, which therefore produces a source of energy that, in theory, can be replenished indefinitely from the vacuum. Such a result is incomprehensible in U(1) Maxwell-Heaviside electrodynamics.”

M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., “Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator by Sachs’s Theory of Electrodynamics,” Foundations of Physics Letters, 14(4), 2001, p. 387-393.

M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., “The Aharonov-Bohm Effect as the Basis of Electromagnetic Energy Inherent in the Vacuum,” Foundations of Physics Letters, 15(6), Dec. 2002, p. 561-568.

T. E. Bearden, “Extracting and Using Electromagnetic Energy from the Active Vacuum,” in M. W. Evans (ed.), Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, 3 vols., Wiley, 2001; Vol. 2, p. 639-698.

T. E. Bearden, “Energy from the Active Vacuum: The Motionless Electromagnetic Generator,” in M. W. Evans (Ed.), Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, 3-vols., Wiley, 2001; Vol. 2, p. 699-776.

M. W. Evans, T. E. Bearden, and A. Labounsky, “The Most General Form of the Vector Potential in Electrodynamics,” Foundations of Physics Letters, 15(3), June 2002, p. 245-261.

T. E. Bearden, Energy from the Vacuum: Concepts and Principles, Cheniere Press, Santa Barbara, CA, 2002, 977 p.; “Chapter 7. Aharonov-Bohm Effect, Geometric Phase, and the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator.”

T. E. Bearden, “Engineering the Active Vacuum: On the Asymmetrical Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Magnetic Vector Potential A vs. Magnetic Field B,” available at. This is the beginning paper in an absolutely necessary retranslation of the hoary old flawed 1880s CEM/EE concepts into the modern language of particle physics and vacuum engineering. Note carefully that cranking the shaft of a generator has nothing at all directly to do with the EM energy pouring out of the generator terminals and through space outside and along the conductors of the external circuit. See the diagram in Figure 2 as to how an EM circuit is actually powered and where the energy comes from and how. Again, so far as I’m aware, this information does not appear in any textbook or outside paper.

K. Moore, M. Stockton, and T. Bearden, “Electromagnetic Energy from the Vacuum: System Efficiency (e) and Coefficient of Performance (COP) of Symmetric and Asymmetric Maxwellian Systems,” Available from